Aiming to Build a Life Spatial Information Infrastructure
--Suggestions for Advanced Utilization of Geographic Information System--
In the U.S., the standard cost of creating a 1/2400 scale digital map is $1,500 to $2,000 per square kilometer. Because the information contained in maps (survey items) differ between the U.S. and Japan, a simple comparison is not possible, but it is certain that the cost of creating digital maps in Japan is substantially higher than in the U.S.
The concept of sharing and mutually utilizing data among departments and bureaus and among government ministries and agencies is lacking, so each entity is independently pursuing digitalization of maps.
The road information (original information) of the Digital Road Map Association has been compiled through work relating to road administration, but nevertheless, a high fee must be paid in order to utilize this information.
The map information (original information) of the Japan Map Center fundamentally has copyright usage fees associated therewith.
There are cases when large usage fees are required for utilization of street number codes and the like.
Three dimensional data is unorganized.
Daily traffic information cannot be obtained in a timely fashion.
Attribute information is insufficient. It is necessary to subdivide attribute items (traffic jam conditions differ even between different directions on the same street).
There are no digital maps created by the Geographical Survey Institute, or data integrated between the public and private sectors for location information such as for facilities and stores.
There is no map data with unified standards encompassing the whole of Japan.
Most official maps showing the location of land lack reliability relating to accuracy and descriptions. There are even old paper-based documents that were not surveyed among registry documents on real estate.
Although the introduction of basic information surveys has been started for surveying conducted by the Geographical Survey Institute, fundamentally the updating term is long, so it is difficult to obtain basic surveying results that are based on reality.
It would be nice if information such as the width of roads in rural areas and mountain districts were organized.
Application of the principle of competition is inadequate during introduction periods and updating periods for databases and the GIS system.
Government utilization of maps organized by the private sector is inadequate.
There are cases where various ministries and agencies invest in maps without taking mutual utilization into consideration. Examples include the 50 m mesh elevation data of the Geographical Survey Institute and the contour data of the Forestry Agency, the business districts of the Geographical Survey Institute and the basic unit districts of the census conducted by the Management and Coordination Agency, etc.
In numerical value map 2500, public edifices are broken down into 17 classifications including post offices, police stations, fire stations, government offices, schools, etc., and public facilities in the national land numerical value information of the National Land Agency are treated as government offices, education and culture facilities, athletic facilities, medical facilities and public open space, etc., but the definition of public facilities is unclear, so there is no corresponding relationship and consequently use is limited.
There are numerous vertically integrated projects by each ministry and agency. There are some cooperative projects, but there are held to cooperation at the level of the responsible parties in each respective ministry or agency, and hence do not become joint projects among ministries or agencies.
The division of responsibilities between the public sector and the private sector is not clear (because the division of responsibilities is not clear even within the public sector).
The definition of data is not clear. For example, rivers (a river flows from what point to what point? Are the banks included or not? etc.), roads (the Ministry of Construction and the Geographical Survey Institute feel it is fine if the center line is known, but the National Land Agency displays roads using double lines, so these are not flexibly usable), buildings (public buildings on maps created by the Geographical Survey Institute are shown with the status of the lot indicated numerically and data on surrounding residential districts and offices are included to the extent that the background is known. On the other hand, the National Land Agency inputs data including individual homes.), etc. can be pointed out.
The standards for agricultural land and urban planning districts under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the Ministry of Construction are not coordinated.
Operation office statistics are not accessible on-line.
The absence/presence and location of information for limitations on special vehicles in each prefecture is not understood.
Building shape maps prepared by government and public institutions have not been made available.
The road information (original information) of the Digital Road Map Association cannot be utilized except by members despite the fact that this information was collected using tax money.
In a large number of cases, free use of urban planning maps is not permitted.
Urban planning maps are not accessible on-line.
Traffic value evaluations are not accessible through electronic media.
Organization and electronic disclosure of land and building registry information is inadequate.
Commercial registry information is not accessible through computer networks.
Information disclosure relating to electronic standard points is inadequate.
Use of ledger data and basic surveying results without a specific purpose is prohibited, and the reasons for this are difficult to understand.
The perusal procedures in the reading room of the Regional Surveying Division of the National Land Geography Association are complex. In addition, they are difficult for novices to understand.
In the reading room of the Regional Surveying Division of the National Land Geography Association, the office will not copy the latest editions of topographic maps, and patrons are told to purchase them at a bookstore (because the latest editions can be purchased more cheaply at bookstores).
Data from the basic unit districts of the national census are in general not made available.
National land numerical value information is in general not made available.
Display standards for government information are sporadic and diverse.
Despite the fact that technological innovations are making it possible for surveying to be conducted with the necessary accuracy to suit the purpose of the survey by people who are not surveyors, it is still mandatory to have a surveyor according to the Surveying Industry Registration System (Article 55 of the Surveying Act).
In approval procedures relating to duplication and use of basic surveying results, utilization purpose is included as an application item, making effective multi-purpose utilization difficult.
Because surveying technology is rapidly advancing, the U.S. has stopped checking surveying processes and instead has switched to a quality check for maps that are the result of surveying, but in public surveying in Japan, process management involving creation standards and approved accuracy is still conducted.